小牛英语

高考英语语法:定语从句常见错误解析

作者:小牛英语 | 来源:小牛英语 | 2017年01月14日 17:43

高中英语中,同学们在学习定语从句总会出现小的错误,下面是小牛英语列出定语从句的十种常见错误。

  一、省去作主语的关系代词致错

  误:The changes have happened in the past few years make the city look even more beautiful.
  正:The changes that have happened in the past few years make the city look even more beautiful.

  误:Those want to visit the art exhibition sign your names,please.
  正:Those who want to visit the art exhibition sign your names,please.
  分析:关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时可以省,但作主语时不能省。

  二、从句中使用多余的代词或副词致错

  误:The compositions we handed them in two weeks ago haven’t been marked yet.
  正:The compositions we handed in two weeks ago haven’t been marked yet.
  分析:从句中省去了作宾语的关系代词that或which,应去掉them。

  误:After living in Paris for 60 years,he returned to the small town where he grew up as a child there.
  正:After living in Paris for 60 years,he returned to the small town where he grew up as a child.
  分析:关系副词where在从句中作地点状语,使用there属语义重复,应去掉。

  三、as / it / which混用致错

  误:As is known to all that smoking does great harm to health.
  正:It is known to all that smoking does great harm to health.或As is known to all,smoking does great harm to health.
  分析:as引导非限制性定语从句,置于句首时,要用逗号与主句隔开;it放在句首,作形式主语时,将从句后置,中间不用逗号。

  误:Tom drinks a lot every day,as his wife doesn’t like at all.
  正:Tom drinks a lot every day,which his wife doesn’t like at all.
  分析:as引导的非限制性定语从句既可放在主句后,也可放在主句前和主句中,而which引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句后。当主句与从句语义一致时,通常用as,反之则用which。

  四、从句中误用人称代词或物主代词致错

  误:China has hundreds of islands,the largest of them is Taiwan.
  正:China has hundreds of islands,the largest of which is Taiwan.或China has hundreds of islands,and the largest of them is Taiwan.
  分析:人称代词只能用在独立的单句或分句中,不能用在定语从句中。

  误:The boss in her department Ms King worked looked down upon women.
  正:The boss in whose department Ms King worked looked down upon women.
  分析:物主代词不能在定语从句中作定语,定语从句中用whose作定语,修饰department。

  五、关系代词与关系副词混用致错

  误:I live in Hong Kong,where is the Special Administrative Zone.
  正:I live in Hong Kong,which is the Special Administrative Zone.

  误:Is this museum the one when some German friends visited the other day?
  正:Is this museum the one that some German friends visited the other day?
  分析:关系代词在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语或定语,关系副词在从句中作状语。

        六、用v+ing结构替换定语从句致错

  误:The girl bringing milk here every morning is from a mountain village.
  正:The girl who brings milk here every morning is from a mountain village.

  误:The scholars returning from abroad recently were awarded by the local government. 
  正:The scholars who had returned from abroad recently were awarded by the local government.
  分析:当定语从句的谓语动词表示经常性或习惯性的动作或定语从句谓语动词的动作先于主句谓语动词的动作时,不宜用v+ing替换定语从句。

  七、that与which混用致错

  误:The weather turned out to be very good,that was more than we expected.
  正:The weather turned out to be very good,which was more than we expected.

  误:The stories about the Second World War were written,of that this is one example.
  正:The stories about the Second World War were written,of which this is one example.
  分析:that和which使用情况有别,不可混淆。在非限制性定语从句中及介词后要使用which。下列情况须用that:1.先行词为something/anything/everything/nothing/all/much/little等;2.先行词被形容词最高级、序数词修饰;3.先行词被all/the/very/the only等修饰;4.先行词既有人,又有物时。

  八、 谓语动词的人称和数与先行词不一致致错

  误:I,who is your close friend,will certainly help you when in trouble.
  正:I,who am your close friend,will certainly help you when in trouble.
  分析:定语从句谓语动词的人称和数应与先行词保持一致。

  误:This is the only one of the tape?鄄recorders in the sound lab that don’t need repairing.
  正:This is the only one of the tape?鄄recorders in the sound lab that doesn’t need repairing.
  分析:one前有the only修饰,因此one为先行词,从句谓语动词用单数does’t need。

  九、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句区分不清致错

  误:Abraham Lincoln who led the American people through these years was shot at a theatre in Washington,D. C.
  正:Abraham Lincoln,who led the American people through these years,was shot at a theatre in Washington,D. C.
  分析:限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰、限定的作用,非限制性定语从句对先行词进行补充说明。当先行词为专有名词或表示“唯一”事物时,要用非限制性定语从句。

  十、固定搭配不当致错

  误:The house was sold at such a low price that people hadn’t expected.
  正:The house was sold at such a low price as people hadn’t expected.
  分析:先行词前若有such/the same/as/so等词修饰时,从句须用as引导。先行词前若有形容词比较级修饰时,从句一般用that引导。
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